Ivermectin, a potential anticancer drug derived from an antiparasitic drug
Ivermectin has powerful antitumor effects, including the inhibition of proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenic activity, in a variety of cancer cells. This may be related to the regulation of multiple signaling pathways by ivermectin through PAK1 kinase. On the other hand, ivermectin promotes programmed cancer cell death, including apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis. Ivermectin induces apoptosis and autophagy is mutually regulated. Interestingly, ivermectin can also inhibit tumor stem cells and reverse multidrug resistance and exerts the optimal effect when used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.
ASC Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD ALCAR acetyl-L-carnitine CSCs Cancer stem cells DAMP Damage-associated molecular pattern EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor EBV Epstein-Barr virus EMT Epithelial mesenchymal-transition GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid GSDMD Gasdermin D HBV Hepatitis B virus HCV Hepatitis C virus HER2 Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HMGB1 High mobility group box-1 protein HSP27 Heat shock protein 27 LD50 median lethal dose LDH Lactate dehydrogenase IVM Ivermectin MDR Multidrug resistance NAC N-acetyl-L-cysteine OCT-4 Octamer-binding protein 4 PAK1 P-21-activated kinases 1 PAMP Pathogen-associated molecular pattern PARP poly (ADP- ribose) polymerase P-gp P-glycoprotein PRR pattern recognition receptor ROS Reactive oxygen species STAT3 Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 SID SIN3-interaction domain siRNA small interfering RNA SOX-2 SRY-box 2 TNBC Triple-negative breast cancer YAP1 Yes-associated protein 1